"We’re trying to make every resource available to the ranchers as we go through this crisis.
People want to feel secure and they also benefit from having a community that they can count on — an environment the Scandinavian countries do better than most in creating. at Philadelphia International Airport. In an article on Friday.Though Kerala Police have made a tentative plan to deploy 16000 men in batches during the two month-long season senior officers said they mayfail to enable the entry of young women recounting how the police force crumbled when the temple was opened for the monthly pooja in October and special pooja on 5 November The state police force’s strength is simply not enough to manage the security as at least a lakh devotees are expected to visit the shrine every day during the season In addition to the protesters the police will also have to take into consideration that terrorists and extremists might likely infiltrate the Hill under the guise of devotees and create trouble Intelligence agencies at the Centre and in various states have already warned of this possibility The Sabarimala special commissioner has warned that if the police use force it could lead to stampede resulting in death and injury to devotees at the shrine the trek to which is literally a bottleneck With inputs from TK Devasia Modern Jews may traditionally trace their ancestry to the Holy Land but a new genetic study finds otherwise A detailed look at thousands of genomes finds that Ashkenazim—who make up roughly 80% of the world’s Jews including 90% of those in America and half of those in Israel—ultimately came not from the Middle East but from Western Europe perhaps Italy Most mainstream historians regard Ashkenazim as the descendants of Jews who moved into central Europe from the Middle East sometime before the 12th century CE Ashekenazim like most members of this religious cultural and ethnic group traditionally trace their ancestry to the ancient Israelites The Israelites in turn arose between 3000 and 4000 years ago in the Middle East according to both Biblical sources and archaeological evidence They dispersed after the Romans destroyed their Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE Recent genetic work has supported this traditional view Two studies one led by geneticist Harry Ostrer of the New York University School of Medicine and the other by geneticist Doron Behar of the Rambam Health Care Campus in Haifa Israel traced the three main Diaspora groups—Ashkenazim Sephardim from Spain and Portugal and Oriental Jews from the Middle East—to people who all lived in the Middle East about 2000 years ago The Ostrer study used DNA from the nucleus of the cell in its analyses and the Behar study used both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); the latter comes from tiny bodies in the living cell that provide it with energy Many other researchers considered these results to be definitive at the time Yet there were lingering questions Ostrer and Behar had samples from only a couple of hundred Jews for example And while the Behar group identified four major mtDNA “founder groups” for the Ashkenazim all supposedly with roots in the Middle East it was able to trace only about 40% of Ashkenazi ancestry overall So a different team of scientists led by geneticist Martin Richards at the University of Huddersfield in the United Kingdom embarked on a new search for the origins of these four founder groups The team focused on mtDNA which is often employed in genetic studies because it is easier to sequence and allows analysis of huge population samples However mtDNA is inherited through the mother and not the father so it reveals the history of maternal lineages only Geneticists have identified certain mtDNA markers that define lineages in different parts of the world Behar’s group had traced the Jewish founder groups to two mtDNA genetic lineages called haplogroup K and haplogroup N1b The Jewish lineages were nested within these two larger groups which include both Jews and non-Jews So Richards and his colleagues first set out to understand the history of these broader lineages They analyzed about 2500 complete and 28000 partial mtDNA genomes of mostly non-Jews worldwide plus 836 partial mtDNA genomes of Ashkenazi Jews to see where the Ashkenazim fit into the overall history The result was very clear-cut the authors say: As reported online today in Nature Communications more than 80% of Ashkenazi mtDNAs had their origins thousands of years ago in Western Europe during or before Biblical times—and in some cases even before farming came to that part of the continent some 7500 years ago The closest matches were with mtDNAs from people who today live in and around Italy The results imply that the Jews can trace their heritage to women who had lived in Europe at that time Very few Ashkenazi mtDNAs could be traced to the Middle East The results not only conflict with the Ostrer and Behar results but also with widespread assumptions about Jewish identity Jews have traditionally considered that the mother determines the ethnic identity of her children If being Jewish is defined as genetically descending from the Israelites through the maternal line then many Ashkenazi Jews fail the test according to this data Richards acknowledges that the work is likely to be controversial “I’d anticipate some resistance to our conclusions in certain quarters” he says One way to reconcile his team’s findings with those of other researchers he says is to assume that the founders of the male Ashkenazi lineages were indeed originally from the Middle East but that the maternal line arose in Europe much earlier The European women then converted to Judaism after male Jews moved into the continent establishing the Ashkenazi lineages that we see today That suggestion fits with the contention of some historians that many women converted to Judaism across Mediterranean Europe during the so-called Hellenistic period between about 300 BCE and 30 BCE “The data are very convincing” says Antonio Torroni a geneticist at the University of Pavia in Italy and a leading expert in the genetics of Europeans He adds that recent studies of DNA from the cell nucleus have also shown “a very close similarity between Ashkenazi Jews and Italians” The new data also put the nail in the coffin of another highly controversial hypothesis about Jewish ancestry: that the Ashkenazim actually descend from the Khazars a Turkic people in Western Asia’s Caucasus region whose rulers are known to have converted to Judaism in the 8th century CE That idea was promoted in a 2008 book by historian Shlomo Sand of Tel Aviv University in Israel Ostrer and Behar found no such link however and Richards’s team which sampled mtDNAs from Asia and the Caucasus specifically to test this idea also found no evidence for it Behar remains unconvinced He says it’s “clear that Ashkenazi maternal ancestry includes both [Middle Eastern] and European origins” but he does not agree that the deepest roots of the Ashkenazi Jews can be found in prehistoric Europe He says that he and his colleagues will be submitting their critique of the Richards study soon to a peer-reviewed scientific journal *Correction 9 October 12:40 pm: The photo that originally accompanied this story has been replaced as the original photo was unrealisticVolvo unveils its first car under Chinese ownership on Tuesday Its a high-stakes moment for the Swedish carmaker and a time of reckoning for the Chinese auto industrys global ambitions "If Volvo is successful it will have a great significance on Chinese automakers" Bin Zhu China forecast-team manager at consultancy LMC Automotive tells TIME "It could boost their confidence and set an example for the whole industry" More cars are being produced and sold in China than anywhere else in the world yet the country’s domestic brands have failed to have international impact In fact theyre even struggling at home More Chinese drive a Ford Volkswagen or Nissan than a Chery Dongfeng or Great Wall And as buyers become more affluent domestic marques are shunned even more Consultancy firm McKinsey forecasts that Chinas premium car market will be the largest in the world by 2020 However consumers they talk to doubt that any local carmaker will have come up with a model prestigious enough for them by then Currently the three top brands Audi BMW and Mercedes dominate 75% of the premium sector and keep growing at the expense of local rivals The new Volvo XC90 could buck that trend "Its a car that hits right in the heart of the market" James Chao director of the IHS consultancys automotive unit tells TIME "Its a little larger SUV premium but not fully luxury Its retained a lot of Volvos European flair while many people surely would feel proud to drive a Chinese vehicle of this caliber If its priced competitively and realistically it could be a hit" Success isn’t guaranteed There was widespread skepticism when Geely first purchased Volvo in 2010 Other acquisitions such as state-owned SAICs deal with Korean Ssangyong or SAIC’s subsidiary Nanjing Auto’s purchase of MG Rover failed to bring the sought-for synergies "Sometimes the Chinese companies have taken a lot of time to absorb the knowledge or the knowledge has been out of date" says Bin But he adds Volvo and Geely could be different "Volvo needed a lot of investment to develop new technology while Geely had money but no strong development team It was a win-win situation" The partnership got off to a shaky start Managers from the two companies publicly contradicted each other on how Scandinavian the new cars would be and the sometimes brash Chinese tastes collided with the sober aesthetic of safety-minded carmakers from Torslanda However communication slowly improved and the two sides seem to have found some equal ground In an interview with the Financial Times Volvo’s head of design Thomas Ingenlath said that Geelys owner Li Shufu had "opened our eyes" to the importance of a backseat experience that included a champagne cooler and a humidor Li for his part expressed his admiration for Volvo’s values and said that he thinks they may stand for something the Chinese are craving right now "Particularly in China I think a lot of people start to realize: OK,com. 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"We’re trying to make every resource available to the ranchers as we go through this crisis.